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Lifestyle Engineering

On the Road Again

I travelled to Denmark for a recruiting event last week. The nature of the travel (2-hour flights plus an hour or so of ground transportation on each end) was not something I was used to; admittedly most of the flights I can remember taking are pretty long-haul ones (London-Singapore, London-San Francisco are by far the most common; London-New York exists too, though is less common). I had a great time, in any case – although being awake for about 24 consecutive hours especially when slightly ill was not too enjoyable, it was nice to meet up with students and flex some speed coding and debugging muscles. I think I still coded well even when really tired, though it did lead to some confusing moments as I tried to understand what exactly “PAY THE PRICE” meant in terms of a discount (it means no discount, but given that there was already “HALF PRICE” and a sliding reduction scheme, this did confuse me quite a bit).

This is just the second trip so far this year, though I anticipate there’ll be quite a few more. The two trips I’ve made so far were for business reasons; I’ve been hammering away at a major project at work that should be drawing to a close soon so there should be scope for personal time off. There are also likely to be more work trips in the pipeline – within the scope of my major project, for company events at large as well as for recruiting purposes. Of course, there would be even more trips if I was a Forward Deployed Engineer as opposed to a dev.

I remember reading an article in the BA inflight magazine en route to Billund, and noted that in some survey, 30 percent of people would accept a lower paying job if it meant that they could travel more for work. I think I subsequently found the survey they were referencing. I certainly would be in the 70 percent of people that would not, though it’s hard to draw an accurate conclusion given the way the question is framed (what’s the baseline here? I’d think people who already travel 50 percent compared to people who don’t travel at all might respond differently to being asked if they would do this to travel “more”). The survey was also commissioned by Booking.com, which might have a vested interest in portraying people as more willing to travel (so that companies would engage travel provider services more).

Of course, in business terms there are the obvious benefits of having in-person interaction between team members and/or getting the people who know what they’re doing on the ground, to see what’s going on. They can be really useful to get things done fast; communicating over instant messaging or even via a video conference doesn’t tend to be as effective.

I would say the upside of travel as far as an individual is concerned includes the opportunity to experience new places and see new sights, though I’m not sure how much of that you could achieve in a business trip. I find that many of the past trips I’ve had had been high-octan fire-filled affairs (though there have been exceptions – and not the programming kind). Other benefits involve meeting up with existing friends and acquaintances in the area (again, the tight schedules of many of my trips in the past precludes this). The article does make reasonable points concerning extending one’s stay, though – I actually did that two years ago when I stayed on in California for an additional week after one such trip – and fluidity of plans leading to last-minute bookings.

One of the things that makes me wary of travelling too much is actually long, unpredictable delays through security and customs – this might partially be a result of the routes I typically fly on (which go through major hubs with lots of traffic). I do have strategies to mitigate this (typically, I book an aisle seat near the front, and walk at a very brisk pace once disembarking from the plane; I also tend to choose flights that arrive at relatively unpopular times). This wasn’t a problem at LCY nor in Billund Airport in Denmark; queues were very short and handled very quickly.

To some extent this can be mitigated by Registered Traveller in the UK, the ability to use the electronic terminals in the US and the biometric gates in Singapore; it’s especially useful for me since I don’t typically travel with checked baggage, making the whole process of leaving the airport and getting where I need to go much faster. I did some computations to check whether the UK Registered Traveller scheme was worthwhile, and in the end decided it was reasonable. I used an assumed number of 12 trips per year with an estimated time savings of 25 minutes per trip (a crude estimate, but there are 20 minutes between the UK Border Force’s benchmarks for non-EU and EU passport queues; going by benchmarks ePassports are probably even faster hence the + 5) to figure out that the net cost was 14 pounds per hour saved post-tax (or 24 pre-tax). It could be argued that those specific hours might have unusually high value (e.g. stress at the end of a long flight), perhaps boosting the case for it. I’ll probably travel even more with Registered Traveller in place, actually.

I guess the other thing that has recently dampened my appetite for travel (at least on the personal front) would be the depreciation in the pound; relative to many people I know my proportion of overseas expenses is actually already fairly high (because of investments; 90% of my equities and 50% of my bonds are based overseas – and I hold much larger quantities of equities than bonds). To some extent I overreacted to Brexit (my savings, even in US dollar terms, have increased from the “Remain” case model I had) and there’s certainly still scope for travel around the EU where the pound has fallen more like 10 as opposed to 16 percent, though the length and luxury of such trips is likely to be reduced.

I’ll be travelling again soon, though it’ll be another of those long flights instead. Nonetheless, at some point in the future I definitely want to revisit Denmark. This trip was focused rather closely on executing the recruiting events in question (well, there isn’t really much you can do with one day anyway; I was in Denmark for less than 24 hours) – while I did get to see a little of the city, there was certainly much more to do.

On Paying Oneself First

The expression “pay yourself first” is one very frequently put forth in personal finance circles. In practice, this often involves automatically rerouting some amount of money into a separate savings or investment account whenever a paycheck comes in. Besides the mathematical benefits (compounding; to some extent, risk mitigation via cost averaging if one’s investing), I can see how the approach could be useful psychologically (in that it reflects a shift in one’s mindset concerning money, as well as a conscious prioritization of savings and capital growth). I’ve personally been following this, though I’ve been investing the money into a portfolio of equity trusts and index funds (I’d recommend having an emergency pot to sustain a few months’ expenses first, though).

I see no reason why this can’t be generalized beyond money, though, especially since we do have to manage far more important scarce resources. In particular, I’m looking at time. I’ve received feedback that I tend to slant towards being outcome-oriented, and this does mean that if an important project is lagging but I see a way to recover, I’ll tend to vigorously pursue it – it’s thus not too difficult for me to end up spending 70 or even more hours a week on said project (or even 90-plus, as I did in second year at Imperial). I’ve learned that this is unsustainable, but for me it’s still not the easiest decision to drop something (to the point where a friend commended me for actually using some of my leave during the industrial placement!).

If we look at time in the same way, we get 24 hours a day, or 168 a week; things like sleep are of course important, but I tend to see them more as bills or taxes that need to be paid (not paying them tends to lead to interest!). So paying myself first would involve reserving some time for something else; I’d propose personal learning and development as a good candidate for this.

This is perhaps unsurprising; I suspect that if I polled people as to what “investing in oneself” entails, many answers concerning education would be forthcoming. Like bonds and equities (hopefully), developing one’s skills can lead to future payoffs. I do tend to partition this time into roughly three different domains:

  1. Technical development – e.g. paper reading, programming contests, code katas. These are likely to feed back in to my software engineering work. I’d probably consider these similar to equity income mutual funds; they (ideally) grow in value reasonably steadily and generate nice payoffs along the way too.
  2. General professional development – e.g. writing, finance, tax. Useful for both software engineering work (from what I can recall, I’ve written a lot of docs) and also for managing my own professional matters. Again, these are generally useful; perhaps they have smaller immediate payoffs than technical development, though I tend to think of them as also very important in the long run. Perhaps these would be more similar to a growth-focused fund then? Or even BRK-B (or BRK-A; we’ll get to that but I don’t have a quarter of a million quite yet!)
  3. Random development – singing, photography, etc. These are generally quite fun (I do also enjoy software engineering, writing and finance, but they like all other domains tend to have diminishing marginal returns), and might suddenly explode into usefulness or value given the right conditions. Perhaps these are like emerging market equity funds that are focused on a specific country. There’s certainly a fair bit of variance, but the returns can sometimes be impressive. (If one wishes to take the metaphor even further, deeply out of the money options could be more accurate; they certainly add a bit of fun to a portfolio, too! That said, I have no direct experience with option trading.)

Of course, money and finances are an important thing to manage, and I believe that paying oneself first is a good strategy there. However, it does feel to me that time is even more important. My admittedly equity-heavy portfolio lost around 6 percent during the US election jitters, and this is a portfolio which I’ve built up over the course of about a year and a half now – yet I didn’t feel much (I was expecting a further fall post-Trump win, though in the end the markets rallied). I’m the kind of person who can get annoyed if I find that a day was wasted – let’s not even get started on my reaction to 6% of 18 months (just over a month; 32.87 days). Of course, we have to be careful about jumping to conclusions about what constitutes waste or loss, but I think the point that I find loss of time more painful than loss of money (at least at a small-percentage scale) still holds.

The Problem of Never Settling

There’s still a little bit more of the year (I’d say we’re about 95 percent through). However we’re sufficiently far along that I think it’s time to take stock of what has happened so far, and evaluate what has happened.

Of course, this has been a year of shifting gears, at least in professional terms. At the turn of the year I was struggling with the Immerman-Szelepcsenyi theorem and how to write static analyzers; in the middle I tackled probably some of the most intellectually challenging work I have ever faced, dealt with leaving Imperial (in spite of the aforementioned challenges – there were other things), and set off around the globe. And now at the end I’m left thinking about how to best manage my time and energy across a seemingly unbounded spectrum of professional and personal responsibilities.

The continual pursuit of improvement, even if incremental, can be a great thing. It’s of course difficult to assign suitable metrics, but the mathematics of compounding makes a 0.5% daily improvement more than 5x if sustained over a year. Familiarity with, say, the Parable of the Talents (on being a good steward of what one has) drives the point home further – I’m thankful for the opportunities that I’ve been given so far, but that inevitably comes with some sense of responsibility, that said opportunities are suitably managed and capitalised upon.

An issue with that, then, is distinguishing what constitutes responsibility and what constitutes going beyond (the technical term, especially in a moral or ethical context, would be supererogation). For me at least, the standards I set are somewhat dynamic, and they’ll tend to rise further on strong performances or fall back on weaker ones (most obviously academic targets, also a couple of personal ones). I seek to make these standards difficult but achievable, for I find this spurs growth; yet, it’s way too easy to forget about that and then perceive missing a challenging target as a complete failure (when, actually, pursuing said target probably had a positive effect on the overall outcome, just that it set an anchor at an even higher point).

I tend to push hard to meet what I’ve set for myself. I have a practice of doing weekly reviews, and I think this increases my awareness of how I’m performing; I thus tend to put in a bit (or a lot) of extra effort if something doesn’t look like it’s tracking its target. However, as I’ve mentioned in previous posts, these standards can be and often are blunt instruments especially because they frequently are not entirely under my control.

There are two fairly well-known aphorisms that I find applicable to this – one that’s pretty general (perfect is the enemy of the good) and one more contemporary and specific to software engineering (launch and iterate). Indeed, these challenging targets can sometimes appear overwhelming, though generally I find myself able to focus on what I can do and proceed.

It’s important to keep a clear head through all of this, and taking a bit of time out over last weekend has helped. I think what I’m getting at here is that there can be a dark side to the pursuit of continual improvement, possibly because it leads to greater monitoring and self-accountability, and with some success that can lead to expectations being rapidly revised upwards (at least in my experience). In spite of that, I still believe it’s worth doing.

ScheduledExecutorServices

Scheduled Executor Service and Quota time chart

I briefly touched on this in my first post, but I find that there are quite a few things which I aim to carry out (at least / at most) N times per time interval T. This is described by John Sonmez in Soft Skills as a quota. You may have been able to infer this from the frequency of posts here – I’ve been aiming to write at least 1 blog post per week.

On another note, scheduled executor services are a part of the Java concurrency libraries (introduced in Java 5). They allow clients to submit one-shot tasks wrapped in callables (possibly with some delay before execution), as well as tasks with a fixed rate (more similar to a quota, though not quite – mainly because quotas are concerned with getting things done, while executor services are concerned with enabling tasks to run; also because a scheduled executor service won’t start concurrent tasks). Clients can also specify tasks with a fixed delay; this differs from a fixed rate in that the countdown to the next execution starts after the current task has completed.

If one assumes that the tasks complete relatively quickly, then quotas are, in a way, less restrictive than scheduled executor services; they give flexibility as to when in the time period T the N events occur. This is especially important for tasks that require 2-way synchronization (for me, that largely involves spending time with friends) – it would be even more so for barriers involving multiple people though I haven’t actually planned any such arrangements.

A downside of this is that it delays the decision of deciding when in each period T the events should be scheduled; it’s arguably simpler to schedule them at the same point in each period. Also, if one follows the letter of the quota, then this can lead to very uneven intervals between occurrences – for syncing up with friends, blog posts and quite a few other things, while this certainly isn’t bad it’s also less than ideal (imagine if I had a “weekly sync” with a friend, but actually spoke to them once every 2 weeks at 23.35 on Sunday for 20 minutes, and then again at 00.05 on Monday for 20 minutes). I find that a good way around this is to normally target the same point, but allow for flexibility; I’m not sure you can readily do this in ScheduledExecutorService (you’d have to cancel the old task and reschedule a new one with the correct delay, I think).

The diagram above more succinctly illustrates the difference between the timing semantics for the various things I’ve described. More often than not, at least for meeting up and/or syncing with people, the pattern is closer to the second or fourth above (i.e. with random variation, plus the occasional additional occurrence; perhaps the occasional missed occurrence as well, though I didn’t include that in the diagram).

Another way I’ve modeled this in the past is on the concept of a failure detector in distributed systems. Servers/subsystems can arrange periodic heartbeats, suspecting them of failure if a heartbeat is not received (and “un-suspecting” them if one is subsequently received). Though because of the aforementioned flexibility, a pattern that conforms to a quota could result in a heartbeat interval of 2T. I guess the idea I had previously was I didn’t want to lose contact with friends, bearing in mind that I was still in Imperial at that time and thus would quite naturally and easily meet many of my friends in lectures or in labs – on the other hand, I’m the only person from my class to go to Palantir (at least at this point). I find using a system based on quotas is certainly much easier for me to manage, as well.

Up All Night

“Knew we would crash at the speed that we were going
Didn’t care if the explosion ruined me…”
– Charlie Puth, “Dangerously”

The quote above is from a song that I’ve been listening to a fair bit recently, and I’ve picked up on those two lines although in a different context (as you might expect, the original song is concerned with a reaction to a breakup). I’ve been thinking about how my work practices could work in the longer term and what would be sustainable. Nonetheless, hearing those two lines makes me think of deep surges; some of the most short-term of these could perhaps take the form of all-nighters.

I’ve been fairly lucky in that I haven’t had to pull many all-nighters for quite some time. I think I only did this once for MCMAS-Dynamic (during the report-writing stage; generally given the technical complexity of the work I don’t think it would have made sense), and I don’t think I did one during the third year group project. I also remember having executed one during second year when revising for the exams, though that was thankfully well before said exam period. There have been several hackathons, of course, as well as other occasional personal surges but generally I find that I perform best if I have adequate sleep, and even in the relatively short run I’d be better off doing three say 15-hour days, punctuated by relatively normal sleep (well, as normal as that can be given such a schedule) than plugging away in a continuous stretch.

Anyway, besides the Charlie Puth song I’m also writing about this now because I voluntarily did one this week, though for a rather different reason: watching the US presidential election. I had a couple tabs open with various election newsfeeds and a couple watching market futures and GBPUSD. On hindsight I’m not sure exactly why I did it since it was pretty apparent midway through (I think around 2-3 am in London time) that things were going Trump’s way, and I wasn’t trading through the night (by the time markets opened in the morning there wasn’t too much of a cheap-buying opportunity). That’s a subject for another post, though.

I think the negative effects of sleep deprivation are well-documented; I’m not sure exactly why I pulled the all-nighter for the MCMAS-Dynamic report (probably wanted to rush something out for a supervisor meeting the next day), but I do distinctly remember that the two or three pages that I cranked out, while probably not bad per se fell particularly far short of my quality standards in a later proofread. The problem I’m trying to address with an all-nighter involves not having enough time to deal with a short-run (typically next-day) requirement, and in less extreme cases it’s not the only solution; where possible, I’d also like to try an alternative of waking up abnormally early to work on the issue. Understandably, there are risks that one might fail to actually wake up early, though I think this can be mitigated with suitable (read: loud and highly dissonant) alarms.

However, there are cases where I find this to be the best solution anyway. Some of this might involve external time constraints (for example, if it involves live following of current events – the aforementioned US election is one, or the recent World Series if one’s so inclined; examples from software engineering could include firing off long-running performance or integration tests, or meeting sudden customer requirements). Also, for suitably short time spans this is likely to be an optimal or near-optimal solution (even then, a 1.5 hour nap could potentially be useful in such cases). I think another useful factor to bear in mind would be the activities planned for next day (an exam or interview would be very bad, for instance).

Once the decision to forego sleep has been made, I usually don’t find the direct implementation of all-nighters to be too bad, perhaps because for things to have reached that point there must have been a compelling reason. Typically, by then the outcome-oriented side of me takes over and decides that it would be a night of crushing things (though it doesn’t always calculate the costs appropriately).

I think for me at least the most challenging part of this is managing its costs the next day. I personally don’t perform well if I haven’t had enough sleep, and there’s also a risk of overcorrection (that is, sleeping too early, which messes with the sleep schedule for the next few days). I guess caffeine can be deployed to some extent to address this, though I’ve been on the wrong side of that as well. I find that removing access to a bed at least until only a few hours before one’s normal bedtime can help as well – in fact, staying outside is probably even better (I can sleep on a chair if I’m at home).

In summary, it’s a very useful tool in my experience, and there are circumstances where it might be necessary or optimal, but generally speaking where possible this should be avoided.

Tracking Times at Imperial

Graph of my work time at Imperial

The graph you see above reflects the number of hours I spent on “work” each week, from the week starting 5th October 2015 (I finished my internship at Palantir on the 2nd of October) up to the week starting 5th September 2016 (I started full-time at Palantir on the 12th). Obviously, this includes all time spent explicitly on academic work, at Palantir (social events do not count) as well as time spent tutoring (inclusive of marking and preparing the problem sheets). There’s more to it, though – I place work in quotation marks, as there are quite a number of activities that people might not classify as work that I do count towards the total, such as having 1:1 syncs with people and personal reviews.

I’ve annotated the significant peaks and troughs on the graph with some of the events that had taken place around then that contributed to why I worked so much (or so little). You’ll see that I’ve shaded the part of the graph above 70 on the y-axis in red; for me at least, I think I instinctively start feeling some degree of push-back at that point (and I’ve been cautioned that 70 is already pretty far on this).

Typically, when I look at a graph, I try and identify things that I find to stand out as unusual, and then seek explanation for them. Initially, what does stand out to me is the relative lack of height of the peak labelled (6), the weeks leading up to the end of the Final Project; I would have expected something quite a bit more. I’d attribute this to the sheer cognitive difficulty of the final stages of said project; I remember finding that I would be drained very, very quickly when working on it. I guess for the final project I worked at it pretty consistently over the year, so there was no need for a massive surge at the end as well.

I notice extremely sharp drop-offs (A) and (B) after the end of term 1 and 2, yet no such drop-off exists after term 3. Perhaps, this is a signal that the 58.95 or 61.25 averages in those terms are too harsh (summer term was a relatively tame 52.33), and this does already factor in exam week or week 11, which tends to be less intense as I need to conserve my energy for the examinations themselves. I tend to think of week 8 or 9 as the busiest week in each term, owing to exam revision, and this pattern is reflected in peak (5), but seems absent in term 1 which, in fact, exhibits a convex sequence. This might feed back into the earlier point about considering 70 hours a week as a dangerous point to be insufficiently prudent; there is a crash even after a series of weeks in the 60s.

Although I recompiled this graph recently, I first performed the labelling in September just before I started at Palantir. Nonetheless, looking back at it about two months later, one of the labels stands out to me, that being (A) perhaps because in and of itself it does not seem to give a proper explanation of why the trough (or peak, in the other cases) was there. I did return to Singapore to spend time with my family and a few friends, but it wasn’t really the case that I did very much on that front – in fact, a fair chunk of my time in Singapore went towards MCMAS* (which explains that mid-50 spike, which is actually the week starting 28th December) and Fallout 4 (which, of course, did not count).

It’s heartening for me at least to see that I have a fair degree of intrinsic motivation, as shown by the red line. Over the roughly two months, I managed to work on MCMAS-Dynamic, program extensions for Keep Talking and Nobody Explodes (and, in doing so, revisit programming in C#), set up this website, complete a full retrospective round of the first and second year examinations and learn more about personal finance and investment.

Clearly, the data may be analysed as a time series; in fact, I have bucketed this graph into weekly aggregates, but I do have data down to a daily granularity. An alternative way of handling the daily data could have been to compute a simple or exponential moving average of the data, though I don’t really like doing this at a daily granularity is because of very clear seasonality (in particular, I tend to work the most on Tuesdays, or Wednesdays part-time at Palantir; I work the least on Thursdays and Sundays).

I only did this in year 4; it would be interesting to see how the time profile would have looked like in previous years and how similar it might have been, though the different structure of each academic year would probably have made the series look somewhat different (for example, the beginning of the third term in year 3, very near the (B) trough, would have been a very high peak as I aggressively ramped up for the industrial placement at Palantir).

This was a rather interesting exercise, even without looking into the distribution of time across modules and/or activities. If that is factored in, there are other interesting patterns; for example, the amount of time spent on MCMAS, which involved considerable surges after each set of exams was dealt with, and the time spent on 1:1s and syncs, which was generally a few hours per week but had a 12.5 blip in the final week of the summer term (before people dispersed) and a 10 somewhere later on (maximum likelihood guess would be meeting three of the guys I regularly sync with nowadays for meals on three distinct occasions).

I haven’t been doing this as rigorously ever since I started at Palantir, mainly because the initial impetus behind this initiative was actually understanding which modules I was spending a disproportionate amount of time on (Computing for Optimal Decisions, Software Reliability), and also because I had ready access to my personal email accounts (I tracked the data using Google Calendar); also, my work is far more reactive to changes that may happen because some high-priority issue appeared. Perhaps using it for spare time could be useful, but then the administrative overhead is much larger relative to the time actually being tracked – to a point where I’m not sure it’s worthwhile.

Charting Courses

I had lunch at Nando’s with a friend 2 days ago, and I mentioned that I had been doing my planning for the month of November before said lunch. We had a brief discussion concerning the scope and methodology behind this, and I thought it might be interesting to share how I approach it. I’ve been iterating on this approach since starting fourth year at Imperial. I figured explicit planning was important for two reasons:

  1. I had a lot more flexibility as to how I could schedule my time, with projects spanning multiple terms, and
  2. I had more on my plate as well, having to manage 2 part-time jobs and my own personal development in parallel.

Now that I’ve graduated from Imperial, I find this is arguably even more important:

  1. There isn’t even a “term” unit now. I might have to answer questions, do emergency investigations/dev work, and even be an SME about things I implemented on previous projects. (Though that’s validation that my code’s still in production!)
  2. Personal development is still an issue, and there might be even less of an obvious driver or reminder that it’s important (the part-time jobs introduced weekly quotas and scheduling, in a way).

I have tried to be careful to avoid excessive planning for quite a fair bit of time, mainly because I want to maintain some degree of flexibility and also because it’s difficult for me to measure how long certain tasks will take (especially creative tasks; cue Hofstadter’s law). I thus don’t view the plans as absolutely prescriptive and dynamically redraft them as needed.

Typically, I have an annual planning exercise, which largely involves developing objectives and key requirements for the year across various domains, both professional and otherwise. This has been in place since year 2 at Imperial, actually, and was typically written at the start of the academic year, though I plan to realign it with the calendar year starting from 2017. Here’s an excerpt from what I wrote at the beginning of year 4 (note that there were more objectives as well as more subgoals within each objective):

  1. To be an accomplished student for my final year at Imperial.
    1. Obtain a solid overall average for the fourth year at Imperial. The score is measured by linear interpolation with 84 as 0.0, and 94 as 1.0. (So 0.7 is 91.)
    2. Complete a strong final individual project. 85 is 0.0, and 100 is 1.0. (So 0.7 is 95.5.)
    3. Successfully train a group of PMT students to develop aptitude and, hopefully, interest for the subject. Measurement involves giving the students a feedback form at the end of term 2, asking them to rate the sessions for quality on a 7-point scale. 3.5 is 0.0 and 6.5 is 1.0.
    4. Challenge said group of PMT students. The survey should ask how difficult the sessions were, again on a 7-point scale. 4 is not good (the sessions should challenge them). In fact I’d target 5.25 as an average, for 1.0. 4.0/6.5 would be 0.0.
  2. To manage one’s finances in a coordinated and efficient way.
    1. Max out my Stocks and Shares ISA for the 2017 tax year. 9,000 is 0.0, and 15,240 is 1.0 (obviously). This is allowed to wait for my start at Palantir.
    2. Earn a sufficient income from part-time work over the course of the academic year. 2,000 is 0.0, and 10,000 is 1.0.
    3. Read books concerning finance and financial management from (a reading list I defined at that time), with extensions allowed should I find other quality texts along the way. 0 would be 0; 9 would be 1.0.

The next finer-grained level of planning would be academic terms, which corresponds to quarters in the post-Imperial world. I think I started this from year 3. (I treat the summer holiday as Term 4/Q4, and would do planning for what I wanted to achieve during those as well.) This would include slightly more information about what I planned to do, though it would still be at a very high level (no/minor concrete action planned). I normally didn’t do any planning beyond that.

For monthly planning, there is some degree of executive function that’s involved. I block out time for certain time-inflexible important events or things I need to do, where feasible (for example, making sure to attend the BCS award presentation ceremony, or the graduation at Imperial). It’s also a good time to pencil in anything that should be done monthly, even if it’s not necessarily the case that it’s time to do it. For example, in the absence of shock events I typically have a look at my investment portfolio once a month on the day after payday – this is used to make potential movements and have a quick look as to whether there’s anything in particular I need to position myself for (for example, getting a chunk ready to toss at the market in the wake of the Brexit referendum; similarly, I’m keeping an eye out for November 8th this month).

I also review the quotas that I’ve set – that is, things which I set out to do N times every time interval T (thanks to John Sonmez’s book for the word). Some of these involve meeting or talking to certain people whom I value highly and wouldn’t get to see otherwise (>50% of the guys I regularly talk to are not or no longer based in London or the UK for that matter); others involve financial planning, or personal learning and development objectives.

It’s also a good time to reflect on how things have gone in the previous month, and whether my OKRs and things I’ve wanted to get done for the quarter are tracking or not – and possibly to react to these should things not be going well and/or be overheating (as tempting as it is for me to try and run my winners, in some sense). In any case, I find allocating a decent chunk of time to plan this out (usually around 90 minutes) useful for helping me to decide what to allocate the rest of my time for the month towards, without imposing an excessive overhead (that I suspect would otherwise be amortised over the course of the month anyway). I’ve found it to be a useful exercise, though of course its applicability will depend on the individual.

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