I had some opportunity to have a bit of a break over the Christmas and new year period, and James recommended this title to me about a month ago or so, so I thought I’d give it a shot. It’s essentially a kind of competitive hardware programming game – you’re given a task to complete, and the challenge is to build a circuit exhibiting the specified behaviour. Of course, in practice this is wrapped in a pretty fun if frivolous story. To do this, you have to arrange various components on a circuit board, such as microcontrollers (which allow some form of assembly programming), bridges, logic gates, etc. The verification interface (pictured in the screenshot) definitely reminds me of Quartus II.
I did some x86-64 assembly programming during my first year at Imperial, and thus initially hit a bit of a snag (I kept typing in commas between operands, for a bit wondered why cmp, jne or shl weren’t valid commands, and also tried to perform arithmetic operations with both source and destination registers – you have to use an accumulator). It didn’t take too long to figure things out, though.
I’d say the first puzzle which got tricky was this one (there was an earlier one on using a greedy algorithm for coin change which might have been a bit tricky too):
- You will receive a signal on a non-blocking IO channel that consists of three packets. The first indicates the location to which you must move a robot using a motor, the second indicates the number of pulses to clean the plants at that location (?) and the third indicates the number of pulses to spray them with nutrition.
- To control the robot, you have to use its motor. Fire a signal of 100 for one pulse and then pull back to 50 to move the robot forward (increasing numbers); fire a signal of 0 for one pulse and then pull back to 50 to move it backward (decreasing).
- The clean and feed steps must be done for precisely the correct number of cycles.
- (Implicit) You may assume that there’s no overlap in signals (i.e. the robot will always have finished its feed steps before it gets another packet).
To add to the challenge, the microcontrollers have limited amounts of memory, and thus our programs have to be pretty short. As tasks grow more complex, we need to break them down into smaller pieces; we then end up needing to define protocols between the components. For example, for the above problem, the workflow is as follows:
- The “main” (first) module, upon receiving a packet, dispatches the target location to the second module and then blocks until said second module has sent a signal back.
- The second module compares the robot’s current and target locations, and submits commands to a third module (the one in the top right hand corner) to drive the robot to the target.
- The third module simply drives the motor to move the robot one step forward on a 0 input, and back on any other input.
- Once the robot is in the right location, the second module signals back to the first, unblocking it.
- The first module reads the rest of the packet and executes the clean and feed steps appropriately.
While this is of course different from what most software engineers will be doing in practice, I think it is not unreasonable to use this as part of teaching computer architecture and/or assembly (hello first-year Imperial students!). I think the game does teach a couple of useful ideas.
- Abstraction. This becomes critical for some of the larger problems. Quite a number of the tasks I’ve completed so far have involved developing protocols that use message passing between two or three modules.
- Optimisation can be painful. Most of the time the cleanest factoring is not going to give you the best score, to say the least; I think most users will experience some pain rewriting assembly to fit in fewer lines and/or run with fewer instructions.
- Complex conditional structures and gotos. You can use jumps, but those tend to be expensive; it thus becomes pretty common to use nested tests (teq, for example, checks if its two operands have equal value). Tests set a three-valued flag; instructions can be preceded by “+” or “-” to be run only if the flag is set to true or false respectively. Rather nastily, the flag can be set to neither as well (there is a tcp instruction that indeed writes the three-valued output to the flag!)
- A reminder to consider edge cases. For the Coin Change circuit, the test cases did include a case with exact change, as well as a case where only the largest coins were needed. I’m not sure if the robot test cases included anything too sneaky beyond no movement being required.
Highly recommended; in addition to all the fiddly circuitry there’s also a pretty cool card game that’s a strange hybrid of FreeCell and Spider Solitaire. I’d give this a 9 out of 10, easily. That said, I think people with no prior programming experience would find the learning curve very steep. The game does pretty well at introducing some useful constructs via suitably contrived tasks (there was one on the ROM module, one on the I/O expander, and one about using the digits of an integer as flags) to help mitigate that, though.